Osborne, M. S., & Franklin, J. (2002).
Cognitive processes in music performance anxiety
Australian Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 86-89.

Music performance anxiety has been investigated either as a discrete phenomenon, or as a variant of social phobia. This study examined the theoretical adequacy of establishing music performance anxiety as a subtype of social phobia, using R. M. Rapee and R. G. Heimberg's (1997) model of anxiety in social-evaluative situations to account for the cognitions experienced by anxious individuals in solo musical performances. 53 females and 31 males (aged 16-66 yrs) participated in the study. Similarities between the two phenomena in terms of important cognitive processes were revealed in a sample of 84 musicians. The two cognitive constructs in the model deemed to be critical to social phobia were also the only two constructs predicting music performance anxiety. It is concluded that social phobic models may provide a valid account of the cognitive processes occurring in music performance anxiety. These results are combined with additional epidemiological and etiological information in a cognitive conceptualization of music performance anxiety.

Osborne, M. S., & Kenny, D. T. (2005).
Development and validation of a music performance anxiety inventory for gifted adolescent musicians.
Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 19(7), 725-751.

Music performance anxiety (MPA) is a distressing experience for musicians of all ages, yet the empirical investigation of MPA in adolescents has received little attention to date. No measures specifically targeting MPA in adolescents have been empirically validated. This article presents findings of an initial study into the psychometric properties and validation of the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A), a new self-report measure of MPA for this group. Data from 381 elite young musicians aged 12-19 years was used to investigate the factor structure, internal reliability, construct and divergent validity of the MPAI-A. Cronbach's alpha for the full measure was .91. Factor analysis identified three factors, which together accounted for 53% of the variance. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant positive relationships with social phobia (measured using the Social Phobia Anxiety Inventory [Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1995). A new inventory to assess childhood social anxiety and phobia: The Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children. Psychological Assessment, 7(1), 73-79; Beidel, D. C., Turner, S. M., & Morris, T. L. (1998). Social Phobia and Anxiety Inventory for Children (SPAI-C). North Tonawanda, NY: Multi-Health Systems Inc.]) and trait anxiety (measured using the State Trait Anxiety Inventory [Spielberger, C. D. (1983). State-Trait Anxiety Inventory STAI (Form Y). Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press, Inc.]). The MPAI-A demonstrated convergent validity by a moderate to strong positive correlation with an adult measure of MPA. Discriminant validity was established by a weaker positive relationship with depression, and no relationship with externalizing behavior problems. It is hoped that the MPAI-A, as the first empirically validated measure of adolescent musicians' performance anxiety, will enhance and promote phenomenological and treatment research in this area.

Osborne, M. S., Kenny, D. T., & Holsomback, R. (2005).
Assessment of music performance anxiety in late childhood: a validation study of the Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A).
International Journal of Stress Management, 12(4), 312-330.

The Music Performance Anxiety Inventory for Adolescents (MPAI-A), the first standardized measure of music performance anxiety (MPA) for adolescents, was developed using an Australian sample of 381 talented young musicians, ages 12 to 19 years. This study validates the MPAI-A on a younger sample of 84 band musicians from the United States, ages 11 to 13 years. The MPAI-A was reliable (Cronbach's alpha = .91) and valid for this sample. Construct validity was demonstrated by significant positive relationships with measures of social phobia and trait anxiety. These results are comparable to the findings of the original sample and support the use of this instrument as a screening tool for MPA in young musicians.

Kenny, D. T., & Osborne, M. S. (2006).
Music performance anxiety: New insights from young musicians.
Advances in Cognitive Psychology, 2(2-3), 103-112.

Music performance anxiety (MPA) is a relatively neglected psychological phenomenon that rarely appears in mainstream psychological journals or textbooks. To date, this field of inquiry has focused primarily on professional and amateur adult musicians or college level music students. With the exception of a small number of recent additions to the literature, there have been few studies examining the experience of MPA in younger musicians. In this paper, we review our work on MPA in general, and summarize our recent work with young musicians. We argue that the experience of MPA may begin early in a musical career and that the characteristics of this experience are qualitatively similar to those experienced by adult musicians. There are therefore compelling reasons to address MPA early and to take a strong preventive focus on a condition that to date shows persistence over time and only modest response to available treatments.

Osborne, M. S., & Kenny, D. T. (2008).
The role of sensitising experiences in music performance anxiety in adolescent musicians.
Psychology of Music, in press.

Aversive performance incidents play a role in the development of some anxiety disorders. The role of sensitising experiences in the development of music performance anxiety (MPA) in adolescent music students has not yet been explored. Two hundred and ninety eight music students were asked to provide written descriptions of their worst performance, what happened and how they felt, specifying their age at the time, audience members, and any events that occurred subsequent to the performance. Descriptions were scored according to six domains: situational and behavioural factors, affective, cognitive and somatic symptoms of anxiety, and outcome. Scores were summed to provide a linear scale that was compared to self-reported MPA and standardised trait anxiety scores. MPA was best predicted by trait anxiety and gender. The presence of negative cognitions in the worst experience descriptions improved the prediction of MPA over trait anxiety and gender alone. None of the other factors added to the prediction. Females reported more emotional distress than males and had significantly higher total scores. These findings confirm patterns found in adult performers and across other forms of performance anxiety in children (e.g. test anxiety). This study highlights cognitions as an important element to address in the treatment of MPA in young musicians.

Osborne, M. S., Kenny, D. T., & Cooksey, J. (2007).
Impact of a cognitive-behavioural treatment program on music performance anxiety in secondary school music students: A pilot study.
Musicae Scientiae. Special Issue, 53-81.

This study assessed the effectiveness of a combined individual and group cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) program to reduce music performance anxiety (MPA) in adolescent musicians. Twenty-three adolescents with high MPA from a selective high school were randomly assigned to either a seven-session intervention program or a behaviour-exposure-only control group. The intervention consisted of psychoeducation, goal setting, cognitive restructuring, relaxation training and behavioural exposure in the form of two solo performances with audience. Outcome measures included self-reports of MPA, trait and state anxiety, diagnostic interview for social phobia, heart rate, frontalis EMG, and performance quality. Significant improvements in self-reported MPA were observed at posttest for adherent students only (i.e., students who were actively engaged in the program and who adopted program techniques). Adherent students also had higher MPA at commencement. Non-adherent and behaviour-exposure-only students both showed reductions in MPA over the study period but not to the same degree as adherent students. There appeared to be no effect of CBT on performance quality.